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U.S.S. Monitor - Smoke
Smoke     Having a coal fired steam engine, ironclads emitted a significant amount of smoke.  Making thick black smoke has been a significant chore for modelers of coal fired ships.  Virtually all methods require the smoke to be made either by chemicals or heat, or some combination of both.

     A major restriction for smoke in the U.S.S. Monitor model is space below the deck.  The smoke generating unit would most likely be aft of the turret in the location of the model's propulsion system.  There should be some space laterally, but the height is restricted to less than 5-1/2 inches.   There would also need to be two openings (stacks).

      There are large scale steam locomotives that burn coal and throw out a lot of smoke.  Most of these locomotives weight several hundred pounds and the engineer has the luxury of being on board to control the situation while the rails support the weight.  Coal presents problems for the R/C modeler and would be a difficult task to enclose a firebox in a model such as the Monitor.

      Most alternatives include the use of burning oil, either by flame (heat exchange as opposed to a direct oil fire) or by an electrical coil (heating element).  This typically does not generate a lot of smoke and if an electrical coil is used, the batteries must be large enough to support the operation.

      Another method is to burn some other medium that would generate enough smoke, yet be controllable as to not cause havoc while the model is on the water.